Bible Question: What specifically are the names of the ten horns that the roman empire devolved into?

Answer: 7 HEADS AND 10 HORNS. A " horn" represents power. During each of the seven " head's"— phases of the Roman empire— there were an average of 10 territorial divisions of power. The Roman empire at each stage of history had not " devolved into" " ten horns. But at each stage of history, the Roman empire actually possessed ten divisions of power. The " terrible beast" of Daniel's dream showed from God's standpoint the " fourth" universal empire— which was to rule over Israel. Nebuchadnezzar's perspective of the same four universal empires included in his dream a mighty image. The fourth phase, " feet and [ten] toes," were of iron and then iron mixed with clay (Dan. 2:41-43). The " dragon" of Revelation, representing Rome, also had ten horns. Rev 12:3 " And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads." The " leopard beast" of Revelation 13 is actually the same as the " little horn" on the Terrible Beast which became a beast (a government) on its own.
Dan. 2:41-43 Feet of Image 2 legs 10 toes
Dan. 7 Terrible Beast 7 heads 10 horns
Rev. 12 Dragon 7 heads 10 horns
Rev. 13 Leopard Beast 7 heads 10 horns
SEQUENCE OF 7 H EADS. While the Image of Daniel 2 did not indicate any division of heads, the two legs/feet might indicate that at some point in time Rome divided into the Eastern and Western empire. One suggested possible sequence of the seven heads is as follows:
1 Roman Peoples' Republic Before Caesars
2 Imperial Pagan Rome Under Caesars
3 Western Roman Empire Constantine, Theodocias, etc.
4 Byzantine/Eastern Justinian
5 Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne
6 Holy Alliance Concert of Europe
7 Nazi-Fascist Empire Mussolini & Hitler
10 TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS OF POWER DURING EACH PERIOD OF 7 HEADS. As the Scriptures give an " interpretation," we know the image represented each " kingdom" which would rise after the previous one which had ruled over Israel during the " times of the Gentiles" (Dan. 2:36-45; Luke 21:24). But since the parallel visions of the beasts seem to indicate not only a great Roman empire— but divisions of its power during all its history— the following is suggested. Understandably, the territories of these divisions of Roman power shifted during the centuries to basically include Europe and outlying areas under control. The three indicated we would suggest are the " horns" which specifically gave way to the " little horn" of Daniel 7:
1 The Huns
2 The Ostrogoths
3 The Visigoths
4 The Franks
5 The Vandals
6 The Eastern Exarchart
7 The Burgundians
8 The Heruli
9 The Anglo-Saxons
10 The Lombards
John, perhaps you might like to pursue exactly what the " times of the Gentiles" means which Jesus talked about in Luke 21. May God bless your meditations on the Scriptures with a sanctifying benefit.

Bible Question: Was Peter the first Pope?

Answer: As you may know, the Catholic Church itself recognizes the Apostle Peter as the first Pope. Those of us who are Protestant (non-Catholic Christians) see the rise to the office of Papacy as gradual.
Here is a little section from the book, "The Time is at Hand," which gives the history of the rise to power of Papacy. It gives some clues in answer to your question. Reading the entire chapter is beneficial, and you can access this on our web site at: Volume 2 - Chapter 9
...A Roman Catholic writer*
thus refers to the beginning of this religious empire: "The
coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of the West, by
Pope Leo, A.D. 800, was really the commencement of the
Holy Roman Empire."+
*The Chair of St. Peter.
+"" was the title of the great political institution of
the middle ages. It had its start in Charlemagne. Fisher's Universal
History, page 262, describes it thus: "In theory it was the union of the
world-state and the world-church—an undivided community under Emperor
and Pope, its heaven-appointed [?] secular and spiritual heads." And,
since the popes, as in Christ's stead, anointed the emperors, it follows
that they were the real heads of it.
Although Papacy was organized, as a religious system,
long before, and was even "set up" in temporal power in
A.D. 539, yet it was Charlemagne who first actually bestowed
and formally recognized the of the
Papacy... was as a hierarchy;
i.e., the church came to an organized condition, and
the popes came to be recognized as the Head, representing
Christ, reigning in the church and over the nations, gradually,
from about A.D. 300 to 494...
The time when the popes to exercise civil authority
and power, as will hereafter be shown, A.D. 539...
The popedom struggled long for mastery as the head of the church, and
gradually obtained recognition and dominion; and that this dominion
was generally recognized as early as A.D. 494, is clearly shown by the
Romanist writer of , page 128. After giving in
detail acknowledgments of the Roman Bishop as supreme pontiff by various
councils, bishops, emperors, etc., he summarizes thus:
"These words were written as far back as the year of our Lord 494....
On the whole, then, it is clear, from the foregoing authentic evidence,
that the primacy of the Chair of St. Peter [the Bishopric of Rome] had so
far in the fifth century, that the pope was then
universally regarded as the center of Christian unity—the Supreme Ruler and
Teacher of God' s church, the Prince of Bishops, the Final Arbiter of appeals
in ecclesiastical causes from all parts of the world, and the Judge
and Moderator of General Councils, over which he presided by his
The time of exaltation, A.D. 800, when, as already
shown, the "Holy Roman Empire" was formed, and the
pope, crowning Charlemagne emperor, was recognized as
himself King of kings, Emperor of emperors, "another God,
on earth."